E-cigarettes have been marketed as an alternative to tobacco cigarettes for over 10 years. However, the vast majority of the population is critical of e-cigarettes. This was the result of a representative survey commissioned by the BfR in December 2019. The health risks posed by smoking tobacco cigarettes have been proven in numerous studies since the 1960s, and today we know that cigarette smoking is the main cause of avoidable deaths and numerous diseases. The manufacturers of e-cigarettes show that the content of harmful substances in the emis-sions is significantly lower compared to tobacco ciga-rettes. However, the use of e-cigarettes still poses a considerable health risk. Based on previous data, it is at the moment assumed that with optimal device set-tings and liquid formulations, the health risk is lower than with tobacco cigarettes. Nevertheless, long-term data are lacking.